First Communion

NOTE: At this point, First Communion is still scheduled for Sunday, June 14, 2020. We will, of course, let you know [as soon as we know] if this date changes.

Prepared by John Hum, Catechist and Director of Sacrament Preparation, Religious Education Program, Church of the Transfiguration, New York City由傳道師及紐約市顯聖容堂宗教教育課程聖事預備主管 John Hum撰寫

Introduction簡介

This home study guide is written for the parents of young Catholics preparing for First Communion. This study guide is based on the requirements outlined by the Catechetical Office of the Archdiocese of New York. To enhance understanding of the materials, scriptural references are highlighted. 此家中研習指引為預備初領聖體年輕天主教徒家長編寫。 此研習指引根據天主教紐約總教區傳道處之要求綱領編寫。 為加強對資料之理解,聖經參考處均被強調。

There are five major sections in this study guide: 此研習指引由五個主要部分組成:

  1. Who is Jesus Christ? This section details the divine and human aspects of Jesus, and provides a chronological outline of key events of his earthly life. 誰是耶穌基督?此部分詳列了耶穌的神聖與人性方面,也提供了他在世間重要事蹟之順序綱要。
  2. What happened in the Last Supper? This section describes the words and actions of Jesus as he shared his Passover meal with the apostles在最後的晚餐發生了什麼事情?此部分形容了耶穌與門徒共用逾越節晚餐時的言與行。在最後的晚餐發生了什麼事情?此部分形容了耶穌與門徒共用逾越節晚餐時的言與行。
  3. What is the Paschal Mystery? This section explains the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. It is the central belief underlying the faith of every Catholic and the foundation of the Sacrament of the Holy Communion. 復活的奧秘是什麼?此部分解釋了耶穌基督的受難,死亡與復活。 這是每一位天主教徒信仰背後的中心信念和聖體聖禮的基礎。
  4. How are the bread and wine consecrated during Mass? This section explains the key part in the Mass where the bread and wine are consecrated to be the Body and Blood of Jesus. 彌撒中的麵餅與酒如何被祝聖? 此部分解釋了彌撒中最主要部分亦即麵餅與酒被祝聖為耶穌的聖體與聖血。
  5. How to receive Holy Communion? This section provides step-by-step instructions on how a child should prepare for and receive Holy Communion. 如何領受聖體?此部分提供了一位兒童應如何準備與領受聖體的逐步指引。

Before we begin with these sections, let’s clarify two terms that people often use interchangeably – Holy Eucharist (derived from the Greek word meaning gratitude) and Holy Communion. According to church teachings, there is a difference between these two terms. While Holy Communion refers specifically to the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ, Holy Eucharist refers to the broader celebration that encompasses the Gospel proclamation, hymns, prayers, and Holy Communion. 在我們開始進入這些部分之前,我們先來闡明兩項人們經常交替使用的名詞-聖餐(來自希臘詞語意為感恩)與聖體。 根據教會教義,此兩項名詞有著差別。 聖體特別被用以指耶穌基督的聖體與聖血,聖餐是指更為廣義的慶祝包括了福音宣講,聖歌,祈禱與領受聖體。

Section 1 – Who is Jesus Christ? 第一部分-誰是耶穌基督?

Jesus Christ is the Second Person in the Holy Trinity – Three Beings in One: 耶穌基督為聖三一中的第二位-三位一體:

  • God the Father天父
  • God the Son天子
  • God the Holy Spirit聖神

The name Christ is derived from the Greek word that means “the Anointed One.” Jesus Christ has both the divine and human aspects. He was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary. As foretold by many prophets in the Old Testament, God the Father sent his only Son to the world in order to save us from sins and open the way to Heaven. 基督之名稱來自希臘詞語意為「受膏者」。 耶穌基督有著神聖與人性之特質。 他由聖神所孕由童貞瑪麗而生。 在舊約聖經中曾有多位先知提到,天父派遣了他的獨生子來到世間為了從罪惡中拯救我們和開啟到天國的道路。

Because of the threats posed by King Herod, Mary and Joseph (his earthly parents) took baby Jesus to Egypt. After the death of King Herod, Mary and Joseph returned to Israel with Jesus and settled in the town of Nazareth in the region of Galilee (refer to Gospel of Matthew 2:13-15). 為了希律王的威脅,瑪麗與若瑟(他的地上父母)帶了耶穌聖嬰到埃及。 在希律王死後,瑪麗與若瑟和耶穌回到了以色列並定居在加利利地區的拿撒勒鎮(參考馬太福音2:13-15)。

Jesus was raised as a carpenter following the footsteps of his father, Joseph. He was baptized on the Jordan River by John the Baptist (refer to Gospel of Matthew 3:13-17). He began his ministry at the age of thirty with the help of his twelve apostles and other followers. He performed many miracles to cure the sick (refer to Gospel of Matthew 12:9-14) and showed his divine mercy in the forgiveness of sinners (refer to Gospel of Luke 7:36-50). 耶穌步他父親若瑟的後塵被撫養成為一名木匠。 他在約旦河接受施洗若翰的領洗(參考馬太福音3:13-17)。 他于三十歲時在十二使徒與其他追隨者的説明下開始其神職。 他進行了許多神跡以醫治了病患(參考馬太福音12:9-14)及顯示了他對於罪人的寬恕聖恩(參考路加福音7:36-50)。

During his ministry, he often taught large crowds of thousands. In one such occasion, about five thousand people listened to Jesus for a long day. As evening came, the disciples realized that they did not have enough food to feed the people, only five loafs of barley bread and two fish. Jesus blessed the food and told the disciples to feed the people. Amazingly, after all five thousand were fed, they still collected twelve baskets of bread and fish left over (refer to Gospel of Luke 9:10-17). This miracle clearly showed how much Jesus loved and cared for the people. 在他的神職中,他經常教導數以千計的大量民眾。 其中一次有大約五千人終日聆聽耶穌。 當夜幕降臨時,門徒們發覺沒有足夠食物給予人們,只有五條大麥麵包和兩條魚。 耶穌祝福食物告訴門徒們將其給予民眾。 奇跡地,當五千人食用之後,他們仍然還有十二籃麵包及魚剩下(參考路加福音9:10-17)。 這神跡明確地顯示了耶穌多麼愛護與關懷人們。

Jesus was particularly dear to the children. One day, as he laid his hands on the children and prayed, he said: “Let the children come to me, and do not prevent them; for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these.” (Gospel of Matthew 19:13-14) 耶穌特別疼愛兒童。 一日,當他置手于孩童及祈禱,他說「讓孩童到我這處,別阻止他們;因為天國屬於他們的。 」(馬太福音19:13-14)

Section 2 – What happened in the Last Supper? 第二部分-最後的晚餐時發生了什麼?

Since Jesus was born and raised as a Jew, he dutifully celebrated all the Jewish feasts and customs, including the feast of Passover. In this feast, the Jewish people recall how God inflicted ten plagues on the people of Egypt in order to convince the Pharaoh to let the Israelites leave. In the tenth plague, God sent his angels to kill the firstborns of Egypt but “passed over” the Israelite families and spared their firstborns. After the Pharaoh relented, Moses, with the support from God, led the Israelites out of Egypt. For all generations since then, the Israelites celebrate Passover every year with a grateful heart for what God has done for them. 由於耶穌出生並成長於猶太家庭,他忠實地慶祝了所以猶太節日與習俗,包括了逾越節。 在這節日中,猶太人回想了上帝為了讓法老王給以色列人離開如何對埃及的人們造成了十項瘟疫。 在第十項瘟疫時,上帝派遣他的天使殺害埃及的初胎兒但略過了以色列家庭使其得以保存初胎兒。 法老王動了憐憫心後,摩西有著上帝的支援帶領以色列人離開埃及。 從此以後的世世代代,以色列人每年都懷著對上帝為他們所作的感恩之心慶祝逾越節。

After Jesus made his final entrance to Jerusalem (refer to Gospel of John 12:12-15), it was time to celebrate the Passover feast. He asked his apostles to prepare this supper at a local inn. Before the start of this supper, Jesus washed the feet of his apostles and instructed them to follow his example and serve the others in the future (refer to Gospel of John 13:1-10). This marked the institution of the priestly order. 耶穌最後進入耶路撒冷後(參考若翰福音12:12-15),便是慶祝逾越節之時。 他吩咐他的門徒們于當地旅館預備晚餐。 晚餐開始前,耶穌清洗了他門徒們的腳並且指引他們追隨他的模範而日後侍候他人(參考若翰福音13:1-10)。 這便是神父修會制度的開端。

During supper, Jesus took the bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which will be given for you; do this in memory of me.” And likewise, the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which will be shed for you.” (Refer to Gospel of Luke 22:14-20 and Gospel of Mark 14:22-25.) What Jesus did in the Last Supper provided the scriptural basis for how we celebrate Holy Communion in daily Mass. 晚餐時,耶穌拿起面餅,說出祝福,掰開然後交給他們,說「這是我的身體,會給于你們;這樣做以紀念我。 」同樣地,他們吃完後的杯,說,「這杯是我血的新的盟約,會為你們而流。 」( 參考路加福音22:14-20及馬可福音14:22-25。 )

Section 3 – What is the Paschal Mystery? 復活的奧妙是什麼?

Paschal Mystery is one of the key concepts of the Catholic faith and it pertains to the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The word Paschal has derivation from Greek and Hebrew words referring to the Passover. 復活的奧妙為天主教信仰中的其中一項重要概念, 而它關乎于耶穌基督的受難,死亡與復活。 復活一詞來自希臘及希伯來文指向逾越節。

In the Synod on the Eucharist (2005), Pope Benedict XVI and the bishops emphasized the need for all the faithful in the Catholic Church to enter more deeply into this mystery with full respect for the passion, death, and resurrection of Our Lord. All gestures, genuflection, hymns, and prayers used during Holy Communion must be done with this appreciation. Pope Benedict XVI’s presentation at this synod is shown at the attached link to the Vatican web site, 在聖餐主教會議(2005)中,教宗本篤十六世及主教們強調了天主教會內所有信徒對於吾主的受難,死亡,與復活帶著完全的尊重更為深入地進入此奧妙之中。 所有在聖餐中應用的姿態,跪拜,聖歌,與禱文都必須以此出發。 教宗本篤十六世于此主教會議之發言出現在下列梵蒂岡網站之連結:

http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/sinodo/documents/bollettino_21_xi-ordinaria-2005/02_inglese/b05_02.html#FIRST_GENERAL_CONGREGATION_(MONDAY,_3_OCTOBER_2005_-_MORNING

A summary can also be found in this web site, 在此網站中亦可找到摘要,

http://www.americancatholic.org/News/Synod/default.asp

A full account of the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ is given in the Gospel of Mark 14:32-16:20. Key parts included the following: 馬可福音14:32-16:20有著耶穌基督之受難,死亡,與復活的完整敘述。 重要部分包括以下:

  • In the garden, Jesus agonized whether the pending death be taken from him but ultimately accepted the will of God the Father; 在花園裡,耶穌思索即將之死亡會否免除, 但最終接受了天父的意旨;
  • At the courthouse, Jesus was beaten with a whip and his skin was torn; the soldiers placed on his head a crown made of thorns and mocked him as “King of the Jews;” 在法院中,耶穌被鞭打而他的皮膚裂開;士兵們以荊棘做的皇冠放在他頭上取笑他是「猶太人君王」;
  • At the behest of the Jews, Pontius Pilate (the governor of the region) sentenced Jesus to die on the cross but spared a murderer named Barabbas; 在猶太人的授意下,般雀·比拉多(地區總督)判處耶穌被釘十字架但放過了一個謀殺犯巴拉巴;
  • As Jesus carried the cross up the hill, he felt down several times due to the pain and exhaustion; several women wiped his sweat with their veils; 當耶穌背負著十字架上山時,由於痛楚與乏力他跌下數次;數位婦女以自己的面紗為他抹汗;
  • After Jesus was nailed on the cross, soldiers used a spear to pierce his abdomen to check whether he had died yet耶穌被釘十字架後,士兵們用矛刺他的腹部檢查他是否死去.
  • After Jesus died, Joseph of Arimathea, an honorable man, took his body, wrapped him in linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb; 耶穌死後,亞利馬太的若瑟,一位受敬仰的人,取下他的屍體,以麻布包裹,及將其置於墓穴中;
  • On the third day, when Mary Magdalene and the apostles went to the tomb, they found the body of Jesus missing; the angels told them that Jesus had arisen from the dead; 第三天,當抹大拉的瑪麗與使徒們到了墓穴,他們發現耶穌的屍體不見了;天使們告訴他們耶穌從死裡復活;
  • For the next forty days, Jesus appeared three times to the Apostles before he ascended to Heaven. 往後的四十天,耶穌在升上天國前于使徒們面前出現了三次。

Section 4 – How are the bread and wine consecrated during Mass? 第四部分-彌撒中麵餅及酒如何被祝聖?

During the Offertory part of the Mass, parishioners bring bread (hosts) and wine to the altar. The hosts are typically made by nuns to support their religious communities. 在彌撒中的奉獻部分,教友帶上麵餅(祭餅)與酒到聖壇。 祭餅一般由修女所制以支援她們的宗教團體。

After washing his hands, the celebrant priest of the Mass then recites one of six Eucharistic Prayers: 彌撒司儀神父洗手後朗讀六項聖餐禱文之一:

  • Eucharistic Prayer I聖餐禱文一
  • Eucharistic Prayer II聖餐禱文二
  • Eucharistic Prayer III聖餐禱文三
  • Eucharistic Prayer IV聖餐禱文四
  • Eucharistic Prayer for Reconciliation I修和聖事聖餐禱文一
  • Eucharistic Prayer for Reconciliation II修和聖事聖餐禱文二

These prayers can be found in the Missalette. 這些禱文可在小禱文中找到。

For the Sunday Masses during Ordinary Time in the Liturgical Year, the priest would typically use Eucharistic Prayer II. 禮儀年常年期中的主日彌撒神父一般用聖餐禱文二。

The prayer for the consecration of the bread and wine is the same in each of these six Eucharistic Prayers and is a remembrance of what Jesus had done during the Last Supper: 此六項聖體禱文中的每一項聖化麵餅與酒禱文均為相同亦為紀念耶穌在最後的晚餐中所作的:

He took the bread and, giving thanks, broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, 他拿起麵餅,感謝,掰開,及交給門徒,說,

“Take this, all of you, and eat of it, for this is my body, which will be given up for you.”” 你們全部拿去吃,這是我的身體,給予你們。”

In a similar way, when supper was ended, he took the chalice and, once more giving thanks, he gave it to his disciples, saying, 同樣地,在晚餐結束時,他舉起杯子,感謝,他交給門徒, 說,

“Take this, all of you, and drink from it, for this is the chalice of my blood, the blood of the new and eternal covenant, which will be poured out for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins. Do this in memory of me.”“ 你們全部拿去喝,這是我血的杯,新的永恆盟約之血,會為你們眾人傾倒以寬恕罪惡。 這樣做以紀念我。”

After this consecration, the bread and the wine are transubstantiated to be the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. Every child must be taught and believe in the concept of transubstantiation. This is a crucial belief for the Catholic faith. In contrast, the Protestants do not believe in transubstantiation and their communion service is simply a remembrance meal. 在此祝聖後,該麵餅與酒被聖化成耶穌基督的聖體與聖血。 每名兒童必須被教導與相信聖化的概念。 此為天主教信仰中的重要信念。 與此相對,新教徒並不相信聖化而他們的聖體儀式只具紀念意義。

Section 5 – How to receive Holy Communion? 如何領受聖體?

Before a child receives Holy Communion, he must observe the following steps: 在兒童領受聖體前,他必須遵守以下步驟:

  • If the child has committed a mortal sin, he should go to Reconciliation prior to Holy Communion. 如果該名兒童犯下大罪,他應在領受聖體前進行修和聖事。
  • One hour prior to Mass, no food or drinks are allowed. 在彌撒一小時前不得飲食。
  • When a child waits in line to receive Holy Communion, he should have his hands folded in a respectful, prayerful manner.當一名孩童排隊等待領受聖體時,他應以尊敬祈禱形式折疊雙手。
  • After the priest, deacon, or Eucharistic Minister says, “The Body of Christ,” the child should respond with “Amen” and then receive it either by hand or in the mouth. 當神父, 執事或送聖體員說, “基督的聖體” 後, 該名孩童可以雙手或口領受聖體.

If the preference is to receive it by hand and the child is right-handed, he should place his left hand over his right hand (with the palms up). The priest would then place the consecrated host on the child’s left hand and he should pick it with his right hand and put it in his mouth. 如欲以雙手領受聖體而該名孩童為右撇子,他應以其左手置於其右手之上(手掌向上)。 神父會將祝聖過的祭餅放在孩童之左手而孩童則以其右手取起放進口中。

If the preference is to receive it by hand and the child is left-handed, he should place his right hand over his left hand. The priest would then place the consecrated host on the child’s right hand and he should pick it up with his left hand and put it in his mouth. 如欲以雙手領受聖體而該名孩童為左撇子,他應以其右手置於其左手之上(手掌向上)。 神父會將祝聖過的祭餅放在孩童之右手而孩童則以其左手取起放進口中。

If he should prefer to receive it in his mouth, he should stick his tongue out in a humble manner. 如他欲以口領受聖體,他應虔誠地伸出舌頭。

  • If the child drops the consecrated host to the floor, he should pick it up and give it to the priest. Under no circumstance should he throw it away. 如果兒童令致祝聖過的祭餅掉落至地上,他應撿起並交與神父。 在任何情況下他都不應丟棄。
  • After receiving the Body of Jesus, the child could also drink the Blood of Jesus from the chalice. The decision should be made by his parents as to whether he could drink any liquor. After the Eucharistic Minister says, “The Blood of Christ,” the child could then drink from the chalice. Under no circumstance should the child be allowed to the dip the consecrated host into the chalice. Please note that this “dipping” practice will be disallowed in the Church of Transfiguration by the end of 2015. This practice is forbidden in all other parishes. 在領受耶穌聖體後,兒童可從聖杯中喝下耶穌聖血。 關於他能否喝取酒精的決定應由他父母作出。 在聖餐神職人員說了「耶穌的聖血」之後,兒童可從聖杯中喝取。 無論在何種情況下,兒童都不應被允許以祝聖過的祭餅沾進聖杯中。 請注意此「沾杯」做法在顯聖容堂會在2015年底開始不被允許。 此做法在所有其餘堂區均被禁止。
  • A child may receive Holy Communion every day. It will provide him/her with the grace of God for the daily lives. 一位兒童可每日領受聖體。 這能為他/她提供日常生活中天父的恩典。

English to Chinese translation by Szekin Wong. 由黃斯健提供英文至中文翻譯。

Transfiguration, New York City由傳道師及紐約市顯聖容堂宗教教育課程聖事預備主管 John Hum撰寫

First Communion Home Study Guide

English and Simplified Chinese

Prepared by John Hum, Catechist and Director of Sacrament Preparation, Religious Education Program, Church of the Transfiguration, New York City由传道师及纽约市显圣容堂宗教教育课程圣事预备主管John Hum撰写

Introduction簡介

This home study guide is written for the parents of young Catholics preparing for First Communion. This study guide is based on the requirements outlined by the Catechetical Office of the Archdiocese of New York. To enhance understanding of the materials, scriptural references are highlighted.此家中研习指引为预备初领圣体年轻天主教徒家长编写。此研习指引根据天主教纽约总教区传道处之要求纲领编写。为加强对资料之理解,圣经参考处均被强调。

There are five major sections in this study guide:此研习指引由五个主要部分组成:

  1. Who is Jesus Christ? This section details the divine and human aspects of Jesus, and provides a chronological outline of key events of his earthly life.谁是耶稣基督?此部分详列了耶稣的神圣与人性方面,也提供了他在世间重要事迹之顺序纲要。
  2. What happened in the Last Supper? This section describes the words and actions of Jesus as he shared his Passover meal with the apostles在最后的晚餐发生了什么事情?此部分形容了耶稣与使徒共享逾越节晚餐时的言与行。
  3. What is the Paschal Mystery? This section explains the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. It is the central belief underlying the faith of every Catholic and the foundation of the Sacrament of the Holy Communion. 复活的奥秘是什么?此部分解释了耶稣基督的受难,死亡与复活。这是每一位天主教徒信仰背后的中心信念和圣体圣礼的基础。
  4. How are the bread and wine consecrated during Mass? This section explains the key part in the Mass where the bread and wine are consecrated to be the Body and Blood of Jesus.弥撒中的面饼与酒如何被祝圣?此部分解释了弥撒中最主要部分亦即面饼与酒被祝圣为耶稣的圣体与圣血。
  5. How to receive Holy Communion? This section provides step-by-step instructions on how a child should prepare for and receive Holy Communion.如何领受圣体?此部分提供了一位儿童应如何准备与领受圣体的逐步指引。

Before we begin with these sections, let’s clarify two terms that people often use interchangeably – Holy Eucharist (derived from the Greek word meaning gratitude) and Holy Communion. According to church teachings, there is a difference between these two terms. While Holy Communion refers specifically to the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ, Holy Eucharist refers to the broader celebration that encompasses the Gospel proclamation, hymns, prayers, and Holy Communion.在我们开始进入这些部分之前,我们先来阐明两项人们经常交替使用的名词-圣餐(来自希腊词语意为感恩)与圣体。根据教会教义,此两项名词有着差别。圣体特别被用以指耶稣基督的圣体与圣血,圣餐是指更为广义的庆祝包括了福音宣讲,圣歌,祈祷与领受圣体。

Section 1 – Who is Jesus Christ?第一部分谁是耶稣基督?

Jesus Christ is the Second Person in the Holy Trinity – Three Beings in One:耶稣基督为圣三一中的第二位-三位一体:

  • God the Father天父
  • God the Son天子
  • God the Holy Spirit圣神

The name Christ is derived from the Greek word that means “the Anointed One.” Jesus Christ has both the divine and human aspects. He was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary. As foretold by many prophets in the Old Testament, God the Father sent his only Son to the world in order to save us from sins and open the way to Heaven.基督之名称来自希腊词语意为“受膏者”。耶稣基督有着神圣与人性之特质。他由圣神所孕由童贞玛丽而生。在旧约圣经中曾有多位先知提到,天父派遣了他的独生子来到世间为了从罪恶中拯救我们和开启到天国的道路。

Because of the threats posed by King Herod, Mary and Joseph (his earthly parents) took baby Jesus to Egypt. After the death of King Herod, Mary and Joseph returned to Israel with Jesus and settled in the town of Nazareth in the region of Galilee (refer to Gospel of Matthew 2:13-15).为了希律王的威胁,玛丽与若瑟(他的地上父母)带了耶稣圣婴到埃及。在希律王死后,玛丽与若瑟和耶稣回到了以色列并定居在加利利地区的拿撒勒镇(参考马太福音2:13-15)。

Jesus was raised as a carpenter following the footsteps of his father, Joseph. He was baptized on the Jordan River by John the Baptist (refer to Gospel of Matthew 3:13-17). He began his ministry at the age of thirty with the help of his twelve apostles and other followers. He performed many miracles to cure the sick (refer to Gospel of Matthew 12:9-14) and showed his divine mercy in the forgiveness of sinners (refer to Gospel of Luke 7:36-50).耶稣步他父亲若瑟的后尘被抚养成为一名木匠。他在约旦河接受施洗若翰的领洗(参考马太福音3:13-17)。他于三十岁时在十二使徒与其他追随者的帮助下开始其神职。他进行了许多神迹以医治了病患(参考马太福音12:9-14)及显示了他对于罪人的宽恕圣恩(参考路加福音7:36-50)。

During his ministry, he often taught large crowds of thousands. In one such occasion, about five thousand people listened to Jesus for a long day. As evening came, the disciples realized that they did not have enough food to feed the people, only five loafs of barley bread and two fish. Jesus blessed the food and told the disciples to feed the people. Amazingly, after all five thousand were fed, they still collected twelve baskets of bread and fish left over (refer to Gospel of Luke 9:10-17). This miracle clearly showed how much Jesus loved and cared for the people.在他的神职中,他经常教导数以千计的大量民众。其中一次有大约五千人终日聆听耶稣。当夜幕降临时,门徒们发觉没有足够食物给予人们,只有五条大麦面包和两条鱼。耶稣祝福食物告诉门徒们将其给予民众。奇迹地,当五千人食用之后,他们仍然还有十二篮面包及鱼剩下(参考路加福音9:10-17)。这神迹明确地显示了耶稣多么爱护与关怀人们。

Jesus was particularly dear to the children. One day, as he laid his hands on the children and prayed, he said: “Let the children come to me, and do not prevent them; for the kingdom of heaven belongs to such as these.” (Gospel of Matthew 19:13-14)耶稣特别疼爱儿童。一日,当他置手于孩童及祈祷,他说“让孩童到我这处,别阻止他们;因为天国属于他们的。”(马太福音19:13-14)

Section 2 – What happened in the Last Supper?第二部分最后的晚餐时发生了什么?

Since Jesus was born and raised as a Jew, he dutifully celebrated all the Jewish feasts and customs, including the feast of Passover. In this feast, the Jewish people recall how God inflicted ten plagues on the people of Egypt in order to convince the Pharaoh to let the Israelites leave. In the tenth plague, God sent his angels to kill the firstborns of Egypt but “passed over” the Israelite families and spared their firstborns. After the Pharaoh relented, Moses, with the support from God, led the Israelites out of Egypt. For all generations since then, the Israelites celebrate Passover every year with a grateful heart for what God has done for them.由于耶稣出生并成长于犹太家庭,他忠实地庆祝了所以犹太节日与习俗,包括了逾越节。在这节日中,犹太人回想了上帝为了让法老王给以色列人离开如何对埃及的人们造成了十项瘟疫。在第十项瘟疫时,上帝派遣他的天使杀害埃及的初胎儿但略过了以色列家庭使其得以保存初胎儿。法老王动了怜悯心后,摩西有着上帝的支持带领以色列人离开埃及。从此以后的世世代代,以色列人每年都怀着对上帝为他们所作的感恩之心庆祝逾越节。

After Jesus made his final entrance to Jerusalem (refer to Gospel of John 12:12-15), it was time to celebrate the Passover feast. He asked his apostles to prepare this supper at a local inn. Before the start of this supper, Jesus washed the feet of his apostles and instructed them to follow his example and serve the others in the future (refer to Gospel of John 13:1-10). This marked the institution of the priestly order.耶稣最后进入耶路撒冷后(参考若翰福音12:12-15),便是庆祝逾越节之时。他吩咐他的门徒们于当地旅馆预备晚餐。晚餐开始前,耶稣清洗了他门徒们的脚并且指引他们追随他的模范而日后侍候他人(参考若翰福音13:1-10)。这便是神父修会制度的开端。

During supper, Jesus took the bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which will be given for you; do this in memory of me.” And likewise, the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which will be shed for you.” (Refer to Gospel of Luke 22:14-20 and Gospel of Mark 14:22-25.) What Jesus did in the Last Supper provided the scriptural basis for how we celebrate Holy Communion in daily Mass.晚餐时,耶稣拿起面饼,说出祝福,掰开然后交给他们,说“这是我的身体,会给于你们;这样做以纪念我。”同样地,他们吃完后的杯,说,“这杯是我血的新的盟约,会为你们而流。”( 参考路加福音22:14-20及马可福音14:22-25。)

Section 3 – What is the Paschal Mystery?复活的奥妙是什么?

Paschal Mystery is one of the key concepts of the Catholic faith and it pertains to the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. The word Paschal has derivation from Greek and Hebrew words referring to the Passover.复活的奥妙为天主教信仰中的其中一项重要概念而它关乎于耶稣基督的受难,死亡与复活。复活一词来自希腊及希伯来语指向逾越节。

In the Synod on the Eucharist (2005), Pope Benedict XVI and the bishops emphasized the need for all the faithful in the Catholic Church to enter more deeply into this mystery with full respect for the passion, death, and resurrection of Our Lord. All gestures, genuflection, hymns, and prayers used during Holy Communion must be done with this appreciation. Pope Benedict XVI’s presentation at this synod is shown at the attached link to the Vatican web site, 在圣餐主教会议(2005)中,教宗本笃十六世及主教们强调了天主教会内所有信徒对于吾主的受难,死亡,与复活带着完全的尊重更为深入地进入此奥妙之中。所有在圣餐中应用的姿态,跪拜,圣歌,与祷文都必须以此出发。教宗本笃十六世于此主教会议之发言出现在下列梵蒂冈网站之链接:

http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/sinodo/documents/bollettino_21_xi-ordinaria-2005/02_inglese/b05_02.html#FIRST_GENERAL_CONGREGATION_(MONDAY,_3_OCTOBER_2005_-_MORNING

A summary can also be found in this web site,在此网站中亦可找到摘要,

http://www.americancatholic.org/News/Synod/default.asp

A full account of the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ is given in the Gospel of Mark 14:32-16:20. Key parts included the following:马可福音14:32-16:20有着耶稣基督之受难,死亡,与复活的完整叙述。重要部分包括以下:

  • In the garden, Jesus agonized whether the pending death be taken from him but ultimately accepted the will of God the Father;在花园里,耶稣思索即将之死亡会否免除但最终接受了天父的意旨;
  • At the courthouse, Jesus was beaten with a whip and his skin was torn; the soldiers placed on his head a crown made of thorns and mocked him as “King of the Jews;”在法院中,耶稣被鞭打而他的皮肤裂开;士兵们以荆棘做的皇冠放在他头上取笑他是“犹太人君王”;
  • At the behest of the Jews, Pontius Pilate (the governor of the region) sentenced Jesus to die on the cross but spared a murderer named Barabbas;在犹太人的授意下,般雀·比拉多(地区总督)判处耶稣被钉十字架但放过了一个谋杀犯巴拉巴;
  • As Jesus carried the cross up the hill, he felt down several times due to the pain and exhaustion; several women wiped his sweat with their veils;当耶稣背负着十字架上山时,由于痛楚与乏力他跌下数次;数位妇女以自己的面纱为他抹汗;
  • After Jesus was nailed on the cross, soldiers used a spear to pierce his abdomen to check whether he had died yet耶稣被钉十字架后,士兵们用矛刺他的腹部检查他是否死去
  • After Jesus died, Joseph of Arimathea, an honorable man, took his body, wrapped him in linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb;耶稣死后,亚利马太的若瑟,一位受敬仰的人,取下他的尸体,以麻布包裹,及将其置于墓穴中;
  • On the third day, when Mary Magdalene and the apostles went to the tomb, they found the body of Jesus missing; the angels told them that Jesus had arisen from the dead;第三天,当抹大拉的玛丽与使徒们到了墓穴,他们发现耶稣的尸体不见了;天使们告诉他们耶稣从死里复活;
  • For the next forty days, Jesus appeared three times to the Apostles before he ascended to Heaven.往后的四十天,耶稣在升上天国前于使徒们面前出现了三次。

Section 4 – How are the bread and wine consecrated during Mass?第四部分弥撒中面饼及酒如何被祝圣?

During the Offertory part of the Mass, parishioners bring bread (hosts) and wine to the altar. The hosts are typically made by nuns to support their religious communities.在弥撒中的奉献部分,教友带上面饼(祭饼)与酒到圣坛。祭饼一般由修女所制以支持她们的宗教团体。

After washing his hands, the celebrant priest of the Mass then recites one of six Eucharistic Prayers:弥撒司仪神父洗手后朗读六项圣餐祷文之一:

  • Eucharistic Prayer I圣餐祷文一
  • Eucharistic Prayer II圣餐祷文二
  • Eucharistic Prayer III圣餐祷文三
  • Eucharistic Prayer IV圣餐祷文四
  • Eucharistic Prayer for Reconciliation I修和圣事圣餐祷文一
  • Eucharistic Prayer for Reconciliation II修和圣事圣餐祷文二

These prayers can be found in the Missalette.这些祷文可在小祷文中找到。

For the Sunday Masses during Ordinary Time in the Liturgical Year, the priest would typically use Eucharistic Prayer II.礼仪年常年期中的主日弥撒神父一般用圣餐祷文二。

The prayer for the consecration of the bread and wine is the same in each of these six Eucharistic Prayers and is a remembrance of what Jesus had done during the Last Supper:此六项圣体祷文中的每一项圣化面饼与酒祷文均为相同亦为纪念耶稣在最后的晚餐中所作的:

He took the bread and, giving thanks, broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, 他拿起面饼,感谢,掰开,及交与门徒,说,

“Take this, all of you, and eat of it, for this is my body, which will be given up for you.””你们全部拿去吃,这是我的身体,给予你们。”

In a similar way, when supper was ended, he took the chalice and, once more giving thanks, he gave it to his disciples, saying, 同样地,在晚餐结束时,他举起杯子,感谢,他交与门徒, 说,“

“Take this, all of you, and drink from it, for this is the chalice of my blood, the blood of the new and eternal covenant, which will be poured out for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins. Do this in memory of me.”你们全部拿去喝,这是我血的杯,新的永恒盟约之血,会为你们众人倾倒以宽恕罪恶。这样做以纪念我。”

After this consecration, the bread and the wine are transubstantiated to be the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. Every child must be taught and believe in the concept of transubstantiation. This is a crucial belief for the Catholic faith. In contrast, the Protestants do not believe in transubstantiation and their communion service is simply a remembrance meal.在此祝圣后,该面饼与酒被圣化成耶稣基督的圣体与圣血。每名儿童必须被教导与相信圣化的概念。此为天主教信仰中的重要信念。与此相对,新教徒并不相信圣化而他们的圣体仪式只具纪念意义。

Section 5 – How to receive Holy Communion?如何领受圣体?

Before a child receives Holy Communion, he must observe the following steps:在儿童领受圣体前,他必须遵守以下步骤:

  • If the child has committed a mortal sin, he should go to Reconciliation prior to Holy Communion.如果该名儿童犯下大罪,他应在领受圣体前进行修和圣事。
  • One hour prior to Mass, no food or drinks are allowed.在弥撒一小时前不得饮食。
  • When a child waits in line to receive Holy Communion, he should have his hands folded in a respectful, prayerful manner.当一名孩童排队等待领受圣体时,他应以尊敬祈祷形式折叠双手。
  • After the priest, deacon, or Eucharistic Minister says, “The Body of Christ,” the child should respond with “Amen” and then receive it either by hand or in the mouth.当神父, 执事或送圣体员说, “基督的圣体” 后, 该名孩童可以双手或口领受圣体

If the preference is to receive it by hand and the child is right-handed, he should place his left hand over his right hand (with the palms up). The priest would then place the consecrated host on the child’s left hand and he should pick it with his right hand and put it in his mouth.如欲以双手领受圣体而该名孩童为右撇子,他应以其左手置于其右手之上(手掌向上)。神父会将祝圣过的祭饼放在孩童之左手而孩童则以其右手取起放进口中。

If the preference is to receive it by hand and the child is left-handed, he should place his right hand over his left hand. The priest would then place the consecrated host on the child’s right hand and he should pick it up with his left hand and put it in his mouth. 如欲以双手领受圣体而该名孩童为左撇子,他应以其右手置于其左手之上(手掌向上)。神父会将祝圣过的祭饼放在孩童之右手而孩童则以其左手取起放进口中。

If he should prefer to receive it in his mouth, he should stick his tongue out in a humble manner.如他欲以口领受圣体,他应虔诚地伸出舌头。

  • If the child drops the consecrated host to the floor, he should pick it up and give it to the priest. Under no circumstance should he throw it away.如果儿童令致祝圣过的祭饼掉落至地上,他应捡起并交与神父。在任何情况下他都不应丢弃。
  • After receiving the Body of Jesus, the child could also drink the Blood of Jesus from the chalice. The decision should be made by his parents as to whether he could drink any liquor. After the Eucharistic Minister says, “The Blood of Christ,” the child could then drink from the chalice. Under no circumstance should the child be allowed to the dip the consecrated host into the chalice. Please note that this “dipping” practice will be disallowed in the Church of Transfiguration by the end of 2015. This practice is forbidden in all other parishes.在领受耶稣圣体后,儿童可从圣杯中喝下耶稣圣血。关于他能否喝取酒精的决定应由他父母作出。在圣餐神职人员说了“耶稣的圣血”之后,儿童可从圣杯中喝取。无论在何种情况下,儿童都不应被允许以祝圣过的祭饼沾进圣杯中。请注意此“沾杯”做法在显圣容堂会在2015年底开始不被允许。此做法在所有其余堂区均被禁止。
  • A child may receive Holy Communion every day. It will provide him/her with the grace of God for the daily lives.一位儿童可每日领受圣体。这能为他/她提供日常生活中天父的恩典。

English to Chinese translation by Szekin Wong.由黄斯健提供英文至中文翻译。

Transfiguration, New York City由传道师及纽约市显圣容堂宗教教育课程圣事预备主管John Hum撰写